Regardless of which one is finally specified, for any antenna/cable analyser the ability to take certain measurements will be effectively mandatory. As a result the analyser will have functional modes built in that provision for the following measurements:
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) — This is used to express the power that is reflected from the base station antenna. It relates directly to the reflection coefficient (r) via the following straightforward equation:
VSWR = (1 + r)/(1 – r)
The VSWR can be employed in order to give an accurate assessment of how closely the antenna is impedance matched with the transmission line that it has been connected to. For an antenna that is not adequately matched then a standing wave will form upon the transmission line and the severity of losses will be greater. If the VSWR figure is low then the degree of matching will be better and the power being delivered to the antenna will be higher.
Return Loss (RL) — Measured in dB, this is the loss of signal power that results from a reflection occurring because there is some kind of discontinuity or impedance mismatch on the transmission line. It relates directly to the incident power (PI) that reaches a specified point and the reflected power (PR) that comes back from it. The equation describing this relationship is:
RL = 10Log10(PI/PR)
RL basically gives a measure of how well devices or transmission lines are matched and safeguards against interconnects that have been poorly implemented (so that the connection turns out to be lose, for instance) or kinks within the cabling. When the matching is of a high standard then the RL value will be high. The greater the RL the lower insertion loss will be. The impact of RL was not that large in the past, so it was judged to be of little concern to test engineering professionals. With the emergence of ever higher speed, next generation communications protocols, such as LTE and HSDPA, this is all starting to chance though.
Cable Loss — This signifies the amount of energy that is dissipated across the transmission line, and all of its associated component parts (the cabling, interconnects and protection devices), as the signal passes down it. Caused by the resistance present in the transmission line, this corresponds directly to the total insertion loss (over a given frequency band). The higher the frequency of the signal, the smaller the diameter of the transmission line and the longer the transmission line is, the greater the subsequent loss will be. The size of the losses is of increasing importance to network operators as they now have to meet stringent legislative guidelines in terms of energy efficiency.
Distance to Fault (DTF) — This can be of great assistance in locating the positions of discontinuities and shorts in the base station antenna/cabling that have led to VSWR or return loss issues occurring. Normally complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms are employed by the analyser to translate acquired frequency data into the time domain data, so that signal aberrations can be ascertained in relation to distance.