The key antenna characteristics to be measured (Figure 1) are:
- Radiation pattern;
- Antenna half power beamwidth;
- Antenna sidelobes;
- Antenna gain.
Gain measurements require essentially the same environment as their corresponding pattern measurements. To measure the gain of antennas operating above 1 GHz, anechoic chambers are usually used. Between 0.1 GHz and 1 GHz, ground-reflection ranges are used.
Within the scope of this project, three different gain-measurement techniques are available. The first two are so-called “absolute gain” measurements: the two-antenna method and the three-antenna method, while the third is the gain-transfer (or gain-comparison) method.