5G does not mean 5 GHz. 5G is the upcoming 5th generation wireless mobile network, operating from 24 GHz and up to 95 GHz. It promises extremely high data rate wireless connection such as 4k/8k ultra high definition TV streaming. The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is another fast growing application of wireless technology. IoT is the networking of things around us – from personal gadgets to industrial sensors and freight tracking around the world. By 2020, over 50 billion IoT objects are forecasted to be in operation. This means tremendous work and pressure for RF and microwave engineers to design and build 5G and IoT products quickly to compete for a share of the market.
5G 28 GHz RF system simulation
Designing and building RF systems to operate at 24 GHz and above is challenging due to the parasitics of interconnects, peripheral biasing and passive components, and the absence of simulation models of available system components. Calculating with spreadsheets and then breadboarding with actual hardware is very costly in terms of time, instrumentation, and effort for every ensuing iteration.
A more efficient approach in designing, prototyping, and realizing RF systems in one pass is now possible and is validated in the example below. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of a 5G system with 28 GHz RF input and two down conversion LOs at 22 GHz and 7 GHz to a 1 GHz IF. The block diagram is simulated in the Keysight Genesys Spectrasys system simulator with system blocks modeled as:
• X-Parameter for nonlinear circuit data,
• Sys-Parameter for system datasheet behavioral data with frequency, bias, and temperature dependence,
• S-Parameter for linear circuit data,
• Behavioral equation based models.